Market potential: Rising domestic incomes have created increased in demand for animal protein, thus opening investment opportunities in both poultry meat and eggs. In Ghana, domestic consumption of poultry is increasing rapidly at roughly 13.9% per year. While local production is growing at a comparable rate of 14.1%, this poultry is dominated by “layers” rather than “broilers.” On a regional and global level, consumption rates have also shown steady growth at 6.9% per year and 4.1% per year, respectively.
Competitiveness: Ghana’s broiler farm-gate prices (approximately $2,600 per metric ton) are 27.8% lower than regional prices; however, they are approximately double the prices in Brazil ($1,327 per metric ton) and the United States ($1,380 per metric ton). The high costs of maize and soya—key feed ingredients for poultry—have driven the cost of domestic poultry upward, as feed accounts for approximately 70% of production costs for poultry. Ghanaian broilers are not just globally uncompetitive in terms of price, but also tend to be of inferior quality to more tender imports. Frequent disease outbreaks in the past have also stifled the market, such that Ghana is now almost entirely reliant on imports from the U.S., Europe, and Brazil; imports account for 90% of local consumption. In contrast, “layer” production has been relatively successful in Ghana and continues to experience steady growth, as the perishable and fragile nature of eggs makes them unsuitable for import.
Investor outlook: Investors demonstrated moderate interest in the poultry market. While those that are currently active in the value chain are engaged in the production of layers, many had intentions to pursue opportunities in broiler production once this became more viable.
Social impact: Investments in this value chain will play a very important role in the livelihoods of rural poultry farmers, who contribute 60 to 80% of the national poultry population; such investments will also improve the livelihoods of maize and soya farmers by providing a market for their produce.
Illustrative Investment Opportunity
- There is high potential for import substitution of broilers, as imports currently supply roughly 62% of consumption. However, the costs of production would need to be reduced significantly in order for locally produced poultry to compete with imports. This will require scaling up the production of maize and soya-based animal feed.
The Ghana Poultry Project – http://www.acdivoca.org/projects/ghana-poultry-project-gpp/