Ghana is divided into 6 major agro-ecological zones: the Rain Forest Zone, the Semi-deciduous Forest Zone, the Forest-Savannah Transition Zone, the Coastal Savannah, the Guinean Savannah and the Sudan Savannah
Most of the soils of Ghana are developed on thoroughly weathered parent materials, characterised by inherent or human induced infertility. The soils in the Forest zone are porous, well drained and generally loamy and are distinguished from those of the Savannah zones by the greater accumulation of organic matter in the surface resulting from higher accumulation of biomass. They occur in areas underlain by various igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks, which have influenced the nature and properties of the soil.
Soils of the Savannah zones, especially in the Interior Savannah, are low in organic matter (less than 2% in the topsoil), have high levels of iron concretions and are susceptible to severe erosion. These conditions require that manure be incorporated regularly into the soils in the Savannah zones.
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